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such evil … life shall go for life, eye for   Caesar what belongs alone to God.
        eye, tooth for tooth” (vv20-21).        This chapter introduces human gov-
          God personally intervened when Cain   ernment and foreshadows the rule of
        killed Abel, but now delegates that work   the Lord Jesus in the Millennium. Just as
        to man; “whoso sheddeth man’s blood,   Noah ruled over a new world after the
        by man shall his blood be shed” (Gen   tribulation of the flood, Christ will rule in
        9:6). Since God is not addressing private   millennial glory after the great tribulation.
        citizens but human government, He is   The replenishing of the world (Gen 9:1,7)
        commanding capital punishment, not    anticipates the times of the restitution
        vigilantism.                          of all things (Act 3:21), the regeneration
          Human government wields the sword   when the Son of Man sits in the throne of
        of justice. “If thou do that which is evil,   His glory (Mat 19:28).
        be afraid; for he beareth not the sword   Noah’s dominion extended over the
        in vain: for he is the minister of God, a   birds (heaven), beasts (earth) and fish
        revenger to execute wrath upon him that   (under the earth), prefiguring every knee
        doeth evil” (Rom 13:4).               in these spheres bowing to Christ in a
          Since our rulers have been ordained by   future day (Php 2:10). Just as Noah ruled
        God, we should show them the utmost   with his sons (Gen 9:2) after the curse was
        respect and hold them in high regard. God   reversed (8:21), we, as the sons of God, will
        has instituted government to punish vice   appear and rule with Christ at the same
        and reward virtue. This is government’s   time creation is redeemed from the curse
        most basic and vital function. In an anar-  of sin (Rom 8:19).
        chical age, we must remember that author-  Every government needs to punish sin,
        ity, hierarchy and rule are positive blessings.   and Noah was charged with avenging the
          While we ought to render to Caesar   blood of his fellow man: “From the hand
        what belongs to Caesar, the government   of every man’s brother [kinsman] I will re-
        has been given the sword over the civil   quire the life of man” (9:5 NKJV). Similarly,
        realm only. Since the government does   in the future Christ will be Israel’s kins-
        not preside over the domestic and eccle-  man avenger: “Who is this that cometh
        siastical realms, there may arise a limited   from Edom, with deep-red garments from
        number of times when we have to obey
        God rather than man. Across the western   Bozrah? … their blood is sprinkled upon
        world, the government has encroached   my garments … the day of vengeance was
        upon the domestic realm by passing anti-  in my heart, and the year of my redeemed
        chastisement laws that clearly contradict   [redemption by the kinsman avenger] had
        the words of God (Pro 13:24; 22:15). Simi-  come” (Isa 63:1-4 JND).
        larly, in the normal course of civil life, the   Noah could not eat blood (Gen 9:4),
        government cannot tell assemblies when   since it was reserved for God on the altar
        to gather, how to gather, or whether to   (Lev 17:11). In Noah’s day the religious
        sing or not. Christ is the Head of the   and political spheres were separated. In
        Church – not the UN or WHO. Pastors, not   the future, the offices of king and priest
        politicians, rule in the assembly. There are   will combine in Christ, and the blood of
        overlaps in these spheres, and emergency   sacrifice will be used to remember Calvary
        situations arise, but we must not render to   (Isa 56:7).
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